Purusha Suktam-Sanskrit and English Verses With Meaning
The Purusha Suktam is a Vedic Sanskrit hymn. It is recited in almost all Vedic rituals and ceremonies. It is also recited during the worship of Lord Vishnu or Narayana. The Purusha in the title of the Purusha Suktam refers to the Adipurusha or Supreme Being. He is the source of all creations in the universe. Purusha Suktam Sanskrit and English verses with meaning are given below.
सहस्रशीर्षा पुरुषः सहस्राक्षः सहस्रपात् ।
स भूमिं विश्वतो वृत्वात्यतिष्ठद्दशाङुलम् ॥१॥
Sahasra-Shiirssaa Purussah Sahasra-Akssah Sahasra-Paat | Sa Bhuumim Vishvato Vrtva-Atya[i]-Tisstthad-Dasha-Angulam ||1||
Meaning: That all-pervading God has a thousand heads, a thousand eyes, a thousand feet. He is pervading the world from all sides, and transcending it in all ten dimensions.
पुरुष एवेदं सर्वं यद्भूतं यच्च भव्यम् ।
उतामृतत्वस्येशानो यदन्नेनातिरोहति ॥२॥
Purussa Evedam Sarvam Yad-Bhuutam Yacca Bhavyam | Uta-Amrtatvasye[a-I]shaano Yad-Annena-Ati-Rohati ||2||
Meaning: All this is verily the Purusha that existed in the past or will come into being in the future. And He is the Lord of immortality that grows profusely by food.
एतावानस्य महिमातो ज्यायाँश्च पूरुषः ।
पादोऽस्य विश्वा भूतानि त्रिपादस्यामृतं दिवि ॥३॥
Etaavaanasya Mahima-Ato Jyaayaash-Ca Puurussah | Paado-Asya Vishvaa Bhuutaani Tri-Paad-Asya-Amrtam Divi ||3||
Meaning:The Purusha is greater than all the greatness. Only a quarter part of Him is visible. The three-quarter part of Him is eternal, and established in the immortal world of the transcendence.
त्रिपादूर्ध्व उदैत्पूरुषः पादोऽस्येहाभवत्पुनः ।
ततो विष्वङ् व्यक्रामत्साशनानशने अभि ॥४॥
Tri-Paad-Uurdhva Udait-Puurussah Paado-Asye[a-I]ha-Abhavat-Punah | Tato Vissvang Vya[i-A]kraamat-Saashana-Anashane Abhi ||4||
Meaning: The Purusha with the the three-quarter part ascended above (the transcendental realm). One quarter of Him becomes this material creation again and again. Then He pervades this universe comprising the living (who eats) and the non-living (who does not eat) beings.
तस्माद्विराळजायत विराजो अधि पूरुषः ।
स जातो अत्यरिच्यत पश्चाद्भूमिमथो पुरः ॥५॥
Tasmaad-Viraadda-Jaayata Viraajo Adhi Puurussah | Sa Jaato Atya[i-A]ricyata Pashcaad-Bhuumim-Atho Purah ||5||
Meaning: From Him (Adipurusha or Supreme Being)the Viratpurusha was born as the substratum. As soon as he was born, he multiplied himself. Later, he created this earth and then, the bodies (of the living beings).
यत्पुरुषेण हविषा देवा यज्ञमतन्वत ।
वसन्तो अस्यासीदाज्यं ग्रीष्म इध्मः शरद्धविः ॥६॥
Yat-Purussenna Havissaa Devaa Yajnyam-Atanvata | Vasanto Asya-Asiida-Ajyam Griissma Idhmah Sharad-[d]Havih ||6||
Meaning: When the Devas (enlightened beings) performed a Yajna (sacrificial ritual), the Vasanta (spring) became the ajya (ghee), the Grishma (summer) served as idhma (pieces of wood) and the Sharad (autumn) filled the place of havis (oblatory material).
तं यज्ञं बर्हिषि प्रौक्षन्पुरुषं जातमग्रतः ।
तेन देवा अयजन्त साध्या ऋषयश्च ये ॥७॥
Tam Yajnyam Barhissi Pra-Ukssan-Purussam Jaatam-Agratah | Tena Devaa Ayajanta Saadhyaa Rssayash-Ca Ye ||7||
Meaning: The first Divine Men (the Sadhya Devas and the divine Rishis like Saptarshis) were created from that Yajna (Sacrifice of Creation). The Deva (Virat) performed the Yajna.
तस्माद्यज्ञात्सर्वहुतः सम्भृतं पृषदाज्यम् ।
पशून्ताँश्चक्रे वायव्यानारण्यान् ग्राम्याश्च ये ॥८॥
Tasmaad-Yajnyaat-Sarvahutah Sambhrtam Prssadaajyam | Pashuun-Taashcakre Vaayavyaan-Aarannyaan Graamyaash-Ca Ye ||8||
Meaning: From that Yajna ghee mixed with milk was produced. Birds flying in the air, wild animals of the forest and the domestic animals of the villages were also produced (from that Yajna).
तस्माद्यज्ञात्सर्वहुत ऋचः सामानि जज्ञिरे ।
छन्दांसि जज्ञिरे तस्माद्यजुस्तस्मादजायत ॥९॥
Tasmaad-Yajnyaat-Sarvahuta Rcah Saamaani Jajnyire | Chandaamsi Jajnyire Tasmaad-Yajus-Tasmaad-Ajaayata ||9||
Meaning: From that Yajna the Rig Veda and Sama Veda were born. From that Yajna the Chandas (Vedic Meters) and the Yajur Veda were born.
तस्मादश्वा अजायन्त ये के चोभयादतः ।
गावोः ह जज्ञिरे तस्मात् तस्माज्जाता अजावयः ॥१०॥
Tasmaad-Ashvaa Ajaayanta Ye Ke Co[a-U]bhayaadatah | Gaavoh Ha Jajnyire Tasmaat Tasmaaj-Jaataa Ajaa-Vayah ||10||
Meaning: From that the horses, and all those animals which have teeth in both jaws were born. From that the cattle, goats and sheep were born.
यत्पुरुषं व्यदधुः कतिधा व्यकल्पयन् ।
मुखं किमस्य कौ बाहू का ऊरू पादा उच्येते ॥११॥
Yat-Purussam Vya[i-A]dadhuh Katidhaa Vya[i-A]kalpayan | Mukham Kimasya Kau Baahuu Kaa Uuruu Paadaa Ucyete ||11||
Meaning: (Then some questions were raised by the Rishis)What did the Viratpurusha hold? How many parts were in His huge form? What was His mouth? What were His arms? What were His thighs and what were His feet?
ब्राह्मणोऽस्य मुखमासीद् बाहू राजन्यः कृतः ।
ऊरू तदस्य यद्वैश्यः पद्भ्यां शूद्रो अजायत ॥१२॥
Braahmanno-Asya Mukham-Aasiid Baahuu Raajanyah Krtah | Uuruu Tad-Asya Yad-Vaishyah Padbhyaam Shuudro Ajaayata ||12||
Meaning: The Brahmanas came from His mouth, the Kshatriyas came from His arms, the Vaishyas came from His thighs, and the Shudras came from His feet.
चन्द्रमा मनसो जातश्चक्षोः सूर्यो अजायत ।
मुखादिन्द्रश्चाग्निश्च प्राणाद्वायुरजायत ॥१३॥
Candramaa Manaso Jaatash-Cakssoh Suuryo Ajaayata | Mukhaad-Indrash-Ca-Agnish-Ca Praannaad-Vaayur-Ajaayata ||13||
Meaning: The moon was born from His mind, the sun was born from His eyes, Indra and Agni (Fire) were born from His mouth, and Vayu (Wind) was born from His breath.
नाभ्या आसीदन्तरिक्षं शीर्ष्णो द्यौः समवर्तत ।
पद्भ्यां भूमिर्दिशः श्रोत्रात्तथा लोकाँ अकल्पयन् ॥१४॥
Naabhyaa Aasiid-Antarikssam Shiirssnno Dyauh Samavartata | Padbhyaam Bhuumir-Dishah Shrotraat-Tathaa Lokaa Akalpayan ||14||
Meaning: Antariksha (the space between the heaven and the earth) was produced from his navel, Dyuloka (the heaven) came into existence from His head, Bhumi (the earth) evolved out of His feet, and Disha (the directions) from His ears. Thus they made Loka (the world).
सप्तास्यासन् परिधयस्त्रिः सप्त समिधः कृताः ।
देवा यद्यज्ञं तन्वाना अबध्नन्पुरुषं पशुम् ॥१५॥
Saptaasya[i-A]asan Paridhayas-Trih Sapta Samidhah Krtaah | Devaa Yadyajnyam Tanvaanaa Abadhnan-Purussam Pashum ||15||
Meaning: By making seven enclosures with three times seven sacrificial firewood, the Viratpurusha bound the infinite expanse of the Purusha in that Yajna as finite living beings (Pashu).
यज्ञेन यज्ञमयजन्त देवास्तानि धर्माणि प्रथमान्यासन् ।
ते ह नाकं महिमानः सचन्त यत्र पूर्वे साध्याः सन्ति देवाः ॥१६॥
Yajnyena Yajnyam-Ayajanta Devaas-Taani Dharmaanni Prathamaanya[i-A]asan | Te Ha Naakam Mahimaanah Sa-Canta Yatra Puurve Saadhyaah Santi Devaah ||16||
Meaning: The Devas performed the external Yajna by meditating on the real Yajna; and thus they first obtained the Dharma (based on the oneness of the Purusha). By meditating on the greatness of the Chidakasha (blissful spiritual sky behind everyone, which is the essence of the Purusha), during those earlier times, the Spiritual Aspirants became the Shining One themselves.
By Krishna Das